ATN Consultative Seminar on Post-Cotonou Accra, Ghana, 20-22 March 2018 Marc Maes, 11.11.11, Belgium

 THE TIMES THEY ARE A-CHANGIN’

And so has the EU:

1-         New member states:

  • 2000: 15 member states; 2004: 25; 2007: 27; 2013: 28
  • Have no affinity with the ACP; some of them more pore than some ACP
  • Had to accept the European “acquis” including the Cotonou Agreement
  • Now have a say in what post-Cotonou will look like
  • Many not prepared to give any favours

And so has the EU:

2-          Doha Development Round failed

  • 2003 Cancun: development and implementation issues not delivered; largest ever market tariff demanded from developing countries; Singapore issues dropped
  • 2006: Global Europe Competing in the world; EU launches ambitious bilateral FTA programme
  • DDA declared an SDG in September 2015 ; declared death in Nairobi in December

And so has the EU:

3-          Rise of Emerging Countries, especially China

  • 2000: China becomes WTO member
  • 2000: China: 11th largest trade nation (just behind Belgium!)
  • 2017: China 2nd largest trading nation (14,8 %); soon first: EU still largest but with 15,1% only (US 3rd )

And so has the EU:

4-          Global financial and economic crisis, °2007

  • Crises: bank bail-out, austerity measures, economic stagnation, unemployment up
  • Solidarity down, inequality up

And so has the EU:

5-          GSP reform

  • 2012: All  countries above 4000$ per capita out and
  • forced to negotiate FTA’s
  • no LDC’s status for LDC regions
  • ultimatum for non-LDC ACP countries in EPA negotiations

And so has the EU:

6-        War in the EU’s neighbourhood; terrorism, refugee crisis

  • Arab spring derailed, invasion of Lybia, war in Syria
  • Deash and the so-called IS, terrorist attacks in Europe
  • Refugees not welcome in the EU; human disaster in the Mediterranean sea

And so has the EU:

7-          Populism, nationalism and extreme right on the rise

  • Conservative, neo-liberal governments in the majority
  • Extreme right in government in several EU countries
  • Brexit referendum, 23 June 2016: a xenophobe reaction

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