PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE STATE OF PLAY OF THE ACP-
The European Union is still negotiating a free trade agreement with the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Regions termed Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA). The negotiations were launched in 2002 in Brussels and were due to have been completed in December 2007. However, by the end of December 2007 a lot of gaps were yet to be bridged and some seemed unbridgeable. This led to some countries and regions signing an Interim EPA or an 'EPA lite’ and to continue with the negotiations after. The CARIFOURM is the only region that has concluded a full EPA. The whole negotiations have been an arena of contention between the European Commission (EC) and the ACP groupings.
The trade deal is perceived to have the potential to place a lot of burdens on the ACP regions by taking a look at the various clauses in the interim agreements and the assessments at the countries levels. A lot of contentious issues still persist till date and in some areas, there have been deadlocks in the negotiations. The trade deal has also received a lot of opposition from Civil Society Organizations and think thanks. Campaigns against the deal seem to have toned down for some time now and many analysts and campaigners are in the dark as to what is happening. This report attempts to give updates of what is happening in all the regional blocs specifically and the Africa continent at large. The updates outline the state of the contentious issues in the agreement. The report also dwelt much on media reports and websites information. This could be prone to misrepresentation of facts.
2.0 State of Play within the ACP Region
The most recent meeting on the EPA negotiations at the highest level was the 93rd Session of the ACP Council of Ministers meeting held in Brussels from the 26thto 29th May 2011. The ministers noted that progress on the EPA negotiations have been slow and reiterated their call that outstanding issues including the most favored nation clause, standstill clause, substantially all trade, export taxes, development cooperation, non-
Also, in November 2010 Africa Trade Ministers held their most recent meeting in Kigali, Rwanda and adopted a declaration on the EPA. The declaration, among other things, called on the EU to rethink the basic premises of the EPAs. This could be regarded as the continent wide official position on the EPAs. They also adopted a position paper by the African Union Commission and the Region Economic Communities (RECs) on the EPA. The paper captures all the contentious issues as well as implications of such an agreement on the Continent and makes firm recommendations as the way forward for engagement between the EU and Africa.
Broadly, some of the contentious areas according to the position paper on the EPA are:
I. Development Dimension of the EPA
II. Definition of ‘substantially all trade’ coverage and transitional period
III. Most Favored Nation (MFN) Clause
IV. Non Execution Clause
V. Treatment of Community Levy
VI. Export Taxes
VII. Quantitative Restrictions
VIII. Standstill Clause (Modification of Tariffs)
IX. Special Agricultural Safeguards
X. Rendezvous Clause
XI. Rules of Origin
Also, the South Centre, through its analytical note (SC/TDP/AN/EPA/26 June 2010) outlined 21 contentious issues pertaining to the goods negotiations in the EPA with the above listed issues inclusive. For instance there is no review clause in most of the Interim agreements.
These issues are a common thread running through all the interim EPAs and even those of the renegotiated ones. (For more information refer to the Position Paper on the EPA by the AU/RECS)
2.1 Options Recommended by the AU/RECs in the Position Paper
The AU is asking that all the EPA contentious issues mentioned above need to be adequately addressed by the EU for the trade regime to serve as an instrument for the achievement of the objectives set for it in the Cotonou Partnership Agreement. This will require the EU to grant the flexibilities requested by African countries. Failure on the part of the EU to grant the flexibilities will pose serious risk for the development of Africa. Below are the various options recommended for the EPA process.
A. Continue with the EPA Negotiations on Goods and Development Linked to Benchmarks and based on AU Position
EPA negotiation with the EU should continue. However, liberalization commitments should be pegged to clear development thresholds or benchmarks and must not be more onerous than the low levels of liberalization by other countries (e.g. Mexico and Syria) in EU FTAs. Only when these benchmarks have been attained should countries liberalize a certain percentage of their trade with the EU. The EPA negotiations should also take into account the common positions on the various contentious issues articulated in the AU template. For example, various clauses in the EPA which the EU has inserted should be eliminated: standstill clause; export taxes; MFN clause, non-
B. Sequencing of EPAs vis-
Intensify regional integration and South-
C.EPA negotiations should be concluded after GATT Article XXIV Negotiations have been completed
African Ministers at the Doha Ministerial Conference had envisaged that the negotiations on ‘development aspects’ of GATT Article XXIV should be completed before EPAs are signed. This is to ensure that there is coherence between a development friendly GATT Article XXIV and the EPAs. This continues to be the logical sequence, so that the EPAs are able to embody the developmental aspects of a revised GATT XXIV. Various African Heads of States Declarations and AU Summits have reinforced this important sequencing in the negotiations so that EPAs do in fact deliver on development and African countries are not forced to take on liberalization commitments which are beyond their capacity, leading to deindustrialization
D. Extend EU’s Everything But Arms (EBA) Regime to all of Africa
Under this option, all African countries would have Duty Free Quota Free access to the EU market. The whole of Africa can be seen collectively as a disadvantaged region. This is similar to the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA), where a waiver has been granted at the WTO, allowing the US to provide preferential market access to Africa. The distinction between LDCs and non-
In addition, all African non-
This is a very good option for Africa since it preserves Africa’s regional integration, as well as provides African countries (including non-
E. Improve EU’s Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) Regulation
F. Discontinue the EPAs
Failing the successful conclusion of a development-
3.0 What is the state of Play in the Various Blocs
The table below summarizes the different IEPAs that have been signed and approved by the European Parliament (EP), those that have been signed only and those with which signatures are pending.
Table 1: Status of Interim Agreements
Signed agreements approved by the EP
Signed on 15 October 2008 and approved by the EP on 25 March 2009.
Signed on 26 November 2008 and approved by the EP on 25 March 2009.
Signed on 15 January 2009.
Signed by the EU and by Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland on 4 June 2009. Mozambique signed the agreement on 15 June 2009.
Namibia has not signed yet.
Signed by the EU and Papua New Guinea on 30 July. Fiji requires more time for completion of their national procedures and is currently dealing with political problems, including at regional level.
Signed by the EU and by Madagascar, Mauritius, the Seychelles and Zimbabwe on 29 August 2009. Comoros required some time to further examine the agreement and Zambia has expressed the ambition to consult with other LDCs of the region.
Ghana and European Community signature arrangements pending.
Signature authorised by Council in July; timing to be confirmed pending final discussions with EAC. Failed to sign in June 2010
3.1 Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
This Region is made up all fifteen member states as well as Mauritania. The main exports to the EU are: oil, cocoa, bananas, pineapples, wood, and it are the most important region for trade-
In Ghana, the Government could be under some intense pressure to consolidate the IEPA. In May 2011 during the celebration of the EU’s week in Ghana, a national forum on the EPA was held, in which the European Delegation called on the Ghanaian Government to consolidate the interim agreement. This was contained in the EU Delegation in Ghana website on the 13th of May 2011
At the ECOWAS level, the Community has expressed deep concerns regarding the persistent divergences between the European Union and West African parties. These concerns were contained in a Final Communiqué reached by the sub-
The Heads of State and Government affirmed their common position on the EPAs as follows:
* preserve the independent resources of regional organizations by excluding ECOWAS Community Levy and the UEMOA Community Solidarity Levy from the scope of the tariff liberalization;
* Ensure a sustainable and gradual liberalization that safeguards the region’s tax revenue
* Ensure development capacity and avoid a reversal of the recent regional integration achievements
* West Africa is ready to offer to the EU a maximum of 70 percent market opening over a period of 20 – 25 years;
* Ensure additional financial resources from the EU for the financing of the EPA Development Programme (EPADP). The additional and availability of resources should be taken into account in the text of the agreement and
* Maintain the policy space required to promote trade with other trading partners such as South-
The ECOWAS Body during the meeting also indicated its resolve to deal with the divergences in order to ensure a simple and development friendly rules of origin which takes into consideration the different levels of development of the two parties.
Furthermore, the session agreed to defer extension of rules of origin preferences to cover Ceuta and Melilla till such time that the potential impact of such a move on West Africa could be ascertained, and avoid mechanisms that would affect regional trading relations based on unilateral political sanctions within the framework of the non-
According to the communiqué, the Authority requested the negotiators from both regions to continue consultations in order to reach agreement on the outstanding divergences.
Notwithstanding, the clarion call by the ECOWAS Body the EU is working behind the scenes to complete the consolidations of the IEPA especially in Ghana since Ivory Coast has already signed its interim agreement with the EU. The EU made the call during a national forum on the EPA in early May 2011.
After the Heads of State meeting in Abuja, European and West African negotiators met in Dakar (Senegal) at the technical level from 23 to 25 May 2011, to discuss the way ahead in Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) talks. According to the report from the Weekly Digest on EPA, newspaper on EU’s trade, on 17th June 2011, progress was made, though not clear, on the text of the agreement: rules of origin, market access, the EPA Development Programme (PAPED) and other outstanding issues. The report however indicated that additional work is needed to hammer out differences on issues such as the Most Favored Nation (MFN) clause, which are now nevertheless very limited in number. The EU is confident that a compromise can be found with a decision at political level. The next meeting EU-
3.1.1 Ghana Situation on IEPA
The Ghana specific case is worth noting. The EU Delegation in Ghana has been calling on the Ghanaian Authority to sign and consolidate the IEPA. This came up during the celebration of the EU EPA Week in May 10, 2011. The Minister of Trade and Industry was reported to have called on the private sector in Ghana to be involved in the EPA.
The EU delegation website claims that: “The Minister of Trade and Industries, Hon. Ms. Hannah Tetteh, in an address to kick-
Before the said meeting there was a meeting of a section of CSO organizations to brainstorm on the way forward on the EPA following indicative statements from the Ministry of Trade and Industry. Present at the meeting were: Third World Network Africa, General Agricultural Workers Union, Ghana Trade and Livelihoods Coalition and Action Aid Ghana among others. This is a sign that CSOs in Ghana are bracing for a fierce battle on the EPA Campaigns once again.
3.2 East African Community (EAC)
East African Community (EAC) is made up of five members: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania. Main exports to the EU: plants, cut flowers, coffee, vegetables, fish, tobacco while the main imports are machinery, chemicals, vehicles.
East African Community (EAC) EPA negotiators met in Nairobi from 2-
Reports in The Citizen, Dar es Salaam, on the 31st of May 2011 indicated that the European Union (EU) is still negotiating with the East Africa Community (EAC) on the conclusion of the Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA). The EU ambassador to Tanzania, Mr. Tim Clarke, confirmed this to The Citizen (Tanzanian leading daily English Newspaper) in an exclusive interview in his office recently.
The Ambassador said, according to the report, the two sides were expected to conclude the process by the end of this year 2011. Last year the EAC secretariat conducted the third negotiations in Dar es Salaam between the EAC Partner States and the European Commission (now Delegation of the European Union) on the EPA. The failed signing ceremony was due partly to the intervention of the five permanent missions of the Community in Geneva, Switzerland.
It was also reported by the same newspaper that the former minister for Industry, Trade and Marketing, Dr. Mary Nagu, told participants attending a one-
A total of 65 per cent of EU imports into the EAC already enter the market free of duty. This is because the EAC has already set the Common External Tariff to zero for all imported capital goods. About 15 per cent of EU imports are intermediate goods (inputs to economic activities in the EAC region) and were proposed to be liberalized by 2023.
Financing the EPA process is worth noting. In a report by Allan Odhiambo, The Monitor via allafrica.com, 22 April 2011, indicated that East African heads of state overruled a decision by the regional Parliament to use a donor grant to revive stalled trade talks with Europe. The EAC Council of ministers has been embroiled in a struggle over the use of 3.48 million donor funds to facilitate stalled negotiations on new Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) with Europe. The disputed funds stem from a grant by the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA). Budgetary estimates showed EAC requires about Sh272 million to continue the talks
Sources close to the East African Community Secretariat indicated that there are funding concerns. However efforts were being made to circumvent the funding concerns and will shortly re-
3.3 Southern African Development Community (SADC)
The SADC Region is made of Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, Mozambique, Swaziland and South Africa. Main exports to the EU: diamonds, oil, fish, beef, sugar, tobacco with its main imports as machinery, vehicles, chemicals from the European Union.
3.3.1 EPA negotiations on backburner
Reports indicate that the negotiations in the region have stalled. Negotiations for a new economic partnership agreement (EPA) between SADC members and the European Union appear to have been shelved with no fixed date for resumption of the protracted trade negotiations according to the Southern Times on the 18 of April 2011 edition. According to the report talks between SADC countries and the EU for a new trade deal are on the backburner, with both parties shifting focus to pressing domestic economic and trade issues.
The SADC and EU negotiating teams last met in November 2010 in Mozambique. Instead, the Southern Africa bloc seems more concerned with talks on coalescing SADC, the East African Community and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa into what is known as the Trilateral Free Trade Area (T-
It is also worth noting that reports indicated that Namibia's Finance Minister, Saara Kuugongelwa-
There are also reports that the negotiations have been clouded by a series of disagreements and confrontations since the initial trade regime expired in 2007. The EU is accused of employing bully tactics. Annascy Mwanyangapo, director of international trade in Namibia's Ministry of Trade and Industry told The Southern Times (still the 18th April edition of the Southern Times) that the absence of an operating timeframe scuttled hopes of a deal being reached any time soon.
Since then Africa and the EU have struggled to find common ground on key issues such as the most favoured nation clause, which Europe insists is non-
Again, writing in South Africa's Sowetan newspaper recently, Professor Mwesiga Baregu, blamed the EU for its divisive position on African countries (Southern Times, 18th April 2011 edition). 'The irony is that while Europe is creating greater unity through an expanded EU, Africa -
3.3.2 Namibia Specific Situation
In Namibia the Government seems to be getting a lot of support for not signing the EPAs. Recent reports in the media with regards to Namibia's so-
These reports were sparked by spate of remarks by the minister of trade and industry, Dr. Hage Geingob, on why Namibia has not yet signed the interim EPA. This has opened a debate with local civil society organizations (CSOs), the European Commission (EC), the local meat industry and the Namibia Chamber of Commerce and Industry (NCCI) joining the bandwagon in reaction to Geingob's comments.
Several local CSOs came out in support of the government's stance not to sign the interim EPA at this stage and voiced their concerns about the latest developments that brought about a discord between the Southern African EPA participants. This has specific reference to the necessity of preserving the integrity of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU).
The EC, through the spokesperson for the European trade commissioner, came out strongly to counter the recent remarks of Geingob with regards to the signing of the interim EPA. The latest from his side concerns the ambiguity of Namibia towards the interim EPA and a possible legal challenge to end the country's current duty free quota free (DFQF) market access to EU markets.
The chief executive officer (CEO) of Meatco, Kobus du Plessis, reacted to Geingob's comments by attaching an income and loss statement for the local meat exporting industry should Namibia decide not to sign the interim EPA. However, he acknowledged that the meat sector is not the only sector in the Namibian economy and that regional integration and SACU receipts are important to the country.
Lately the Namibia Chamber of Commerce and Industry (NCCI), through its CEO Tarah Shaanika, also voiced its support for the government not to sign the interim EPA at this stage. The NCCI recognizes the threat of the interim EPA to regional integration in Southern Africa and warned that the government should continue seeking strong and unequivocal written assurances that has been agreed in negotiations will be honoured. All these are positive signs for Namibia looking at the stand of the Government with regards to the EPAs.
3.3.3. Swaziland, Lesotho signed EPA under duress – Guduza
All is not that smooth with the interim EPAs in Swaziland and Lesotho. It has been reported on the 5th of April 2011, in the Swazi Observer, that the Speaker in the House of Assembly of Swaziland, Prince Guduza, indicated that Swaziland and Lesotho signed the interim Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) with the European Union (EU) under duress. He said both countries signed the agreement because they had certain export quotas to the EU. He noted that the EPA sowed a seed of confusion in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC).
“SADC signed trade protocols for its members, which are binding. The parliamentary conference on trade and EPA which was held in Botswana in the previous weeks came up with numerous recommendations regarding trade in the region. One being that governments in the SADC region must involve civil society and parliamentarians in EPA negotiations,” he said.
The Speaker also indicated that the advent of EPAs did not allow membership to more than one trade group. Accordingly they realized that within SADC there were members of the Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU) as well as the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). And this has disintegrated the region further. The Speaker also noted that Swaziland and Lesotho were subject to fail in the implementation of the EPAs as there was no way they would transport goods since South Africa did not allow such as it was subjected to SACU rules. This of course has created more uncertainties in the EPA process in the region.
The Speaker said the signing of the EPA was no longer in the SADC protocol. He said the EPA would be unworkable as it was anti the economic regional agenda signed through the SADC trade protocol. Meanwhile, University of Swaziland Lecturer Dr. Kabura last year said countries that wanted to sign the EPAs must deliberately delay them. He said the EPA must be rejected as it had few benefits for African countries.
On that note, Minister of Commerce, Industry and Trade Jabulile Mashwama said signing of the preliminary agreements of the EPA was delayed by problems in both the EU and SADC region. However, she said they would ultimately be signed.
3.3.4 Technical experts needed for EPA negotiations according to the Speaker
The Speaker again, in Swazi Observer on 5th of April 2011, indicated that in signing the Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) with the European Union (EU), Swaziland needs people conversant with such issues so as to make the ideal decisions. Prince Guduza also said during negotiations, the EU came with a commission well versed in such issues and had plenty of experience. He said there was no technical capacity in the region despite that it would be imperative in EPA discussions.
The Speaker recommended that there must be a Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) Secretariat to engage the EU Commission on behalf of SADC countries when negotiating on the EPAs. There was also the need, according to the Speaker, for the engagement of the EU so that they would look at negotiations in terms of the Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU) and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA).
Again, there must be SADC, SACU and COMESA representatives in the negotiations with the EU as opposed to the approach to the SADC bloc as it had failed, according to the Speaker. “Individual countries must stop negotiating alone. All SADC countries must speak one language when it comes to EPAs. “The agreement is now being negotiated with individual member states as opposed to the original position of negotiating blocs. This is further compounded by the fact that the SADC Secretariat does not have the mandate to negotiate on behalf of member states,” he said.
During the second regional parliamentary conference on trade and EPAs held in Botswana over the past few weeks, it was recommended that there should be promotion of research-
3.4 Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA)
This region is made up of Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Seychelles, Sudan, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Its main exports to the EU: copper, raw cane sugar, textiles, tobacco, processed tuna, coffee while its imports from the EU are: machinery, vehicles, and chemicals.
There have been no further negotiations with the EU since the technical level meetings held in Harare in December 2010. No date has yet been set for the next round of EU-
3.5 Economic Community of Central African States (CEMAC)
All six members of the Economic Community of Central African States (CEMAC), plus the Democratic Republic of Congo and São Tomé and Príncipe are involved in the EPA process. Also, the main exports: oil, wood products, diamonds, cocoa, bananas with imports into the region from EU being machinery, vehicles, chemicals, iron and steel, pharmaceuticals.
Negotiations have resumed. Technical experts from both sides resumed EPA negotiations in three working group meetings – market access, rules of origin and customs issues; services and investment; and EPA accompanying measures -
The Working Group on market access developed a list of goods representative of “sensitive economic sectors” elaborated with a set of development criteria in mind. The EU reportedly agreed to drop the inclusion of the controversial Most-
3.6 Pacific Islands Forum (PIF)
Pacific Islands Forum is made up of 14 island states (biggest are Papua New Guinea (PNG) and Fiji). The main exports to the EU: palm oil, sugar with its imports from the EU being machinery, transport equipment.
3.6.1 Pacific ACP States aim to conclude EPA by end of 2011
In 2011 a three day meeting of trade officials was held in Apia from 3-
Ministers adopted a Pacific ACP EPA 2011 Strategy that outlines a number of options and strategies for moving the negotiations forward and includes a commitment to conclude negotiations by the end of the year. Recognizing the rigorous schedule for the EPA negotiations, PACP states agreed to prioritize EPA-
On May 2009, the Forum leaders decided to exclude Fiji from meetings organized by the Forum, including PACP EPA meetings at Ministerial level. This was the key reason why PIFS did not convene any PACP ministerial meetings in 2010. It resulted in the formal proposal by Pacific Negotiation Group, PNG to relocate the management of the EPA negotiations process and related Economic Development Fund (EDF) resources to the Office of the Chief Trade Adviser (OCTA).
3.7 Caribbean Forum of Caribbean States (CARIFOURM)
The CARIFOURM signed the EPA agreement since January 2008 covering all Caribbean states. (Haiti joined in December 2009). The main exports to the EU are fuel; chemicals, agricultural products (e.g. mangoes, bananas, rice, rum, sugar) and main imports from the EU are machinery
CARIFORUM states have started tariff liberalization since January 2011 under the terms of the Caribbean Forum of African, Caribbean and Pacific States (CARIFORUM)-
At their meeting in Grand Anse on 25-
The first meeting of the European Delegation to the CARIFORUM—EU Parliamentary Committee was held in Brussels on 1st February. The Caribbean-
The European Members of Parliament were informed that the European Parliament’s President wrote to all Caribbean parliaments inviting them to designate 15 representatives for the Joint Parliamentary Committee (one per country). The President also proposed to hold the first joint meeting on 15-
At the Trade and Development Committee level, the first scheduled meeting on implementation of the CARIFORUM-
‘Representatives of the Caribbean Forum of African, Caribbean and Pacific States (CARIFORUM) and the European Union today concluded marathon one-
Again, according to the release both sides agreed that the Meeting represented a ―crucial step in efforts to provide impetus to the implementation of the CARIFORUM-
The Meeting provided an opportunity for CARIFORUM to impress upon the EU the importance of continued support to the Rum Industry in the Region, and expressed concern regarding preference erosion — as it relates to agreements that the EU has concluded and those that are under negotiation — affecting Rum and other products of interest to CARIFORUM. Issues of national interest to the Region related to the liberalization schedule for Trade in Goods were raised with the EU, in particular relating to motor vehicles and their parts and changes to product rates assigned. The EU has given an undertaking to review these matters based on a formal submission by CARIFORUM.
(For more information see the press release visit: http://www.caricom.org/epaimplemenation unit )
3.7.1 Some comments on EPA negotiations with the CARIFORUM
Comments by Dr. Warren Smith
What is happening in this region is best captured by the newly appointed president of the Caribbean Development Bank (CDB) in recent times, Dr. Warren Smith. While addressing the CDB board of governors at their annual meeting in Trinidad and Tobago in late May 2011, he noted that the EPA that was signed in 2008 between the European Union (EU) and the Caribbean Forum (CARIFORUM) countries has added to the insecurities engulfing Caribbean economies.
According to him the EPA signalled the end of unreciprocated preferential access by Caribbean exports into the EU market resulting in new insecurities being created as agriculture production, farm incomes and employment declined, small farmers, especially in banana and sugar producing countries displaced and poverty levels rose dramatically more so, in rural communities.
“If you look at countries in the Eastern Caribbean like St., Lucia, Dominica, their banana industries have been adversely affected so that there is, if you will, first round fallout from that (EPA) development,” he said.
Attorney General of Antigua &Barbuda wants regionalism as a pillar of EPA laws
Attorney General of Antigua and Barbuda, Justin Simon, also called for regional integration to be a key component of laws being designed to implement the Economic Partnership Agreement (EU EPA). Speaking at the launch of a two-
in many cases.
3.7.2 A seminar for the Caribbean business community
Over 120 Caribbean businesspeople gathered to explore the potential benefits of the Cariforum-
Together they looked at the agreement's contents and explored how to put the EPA to work for their businesses -
3.0 A Brief Analysis of the Situation
Combing through all the regions the contentious issues are yet to be addressed as recommended by the African Union and the various regional economic communities. In the ECOWAS Sub region the Heads of State during their last ordinary session made it clear that EPAs should be pro developed. But the EU is also continuing with its divide and rule tactics in the region. The call by the EU for the Ghanaian Authority to consolidate the IEPA speaks volumes of the character and nature of the intention of the EU behind the EPA negotiations. Based on the divisive nature of the EU the best approach is for the ECOWAS region to engage the process as a bloc and shun the country level negotiations.
Again, the position paper by the AU/RECs on the trade deal should be the guiding document on the negotiations. The insistence by the EU on the EPAs process though many oppositions and resistance shows that the EU has nowhere to go. This should be the strength for all the ACP negotiators to be firm in demanding the removal of all contentious clauses in the EPA agreement and to reshape the EPA to be truly a development oriented.
 EU Delegation in Ghana website on 13th May 2011
 Weekly Digest on EPA, Newspaper on EU Trade on 17th June 2011
 EPA UPDATE by Melissa Julian, Melissa Dalleau and Quentin de Roquefeuil and reported in the Trade Negotiations Insights, Vol. 10 April 2011
 A report by Felix Njini on 18th April 2011 in Windhoek in the Southern Times
 A newspaper for Southern Africa
 18th April 2011 edition of the Southern Times
Mwesiga Baregu is professor of political science and international relations at the University of Dar-
 Stories by Nomthandazo Nkambule on April 5, 2011 in the Swazi Observer, a newspaper in Swaziland
 Information taken from EPA updates by Melissa Julian, Melissa Dalleau and Quentin de Roquefeuil and reported in the Trade Negotiations Insight, Vol. 10 April 2011
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